Солнечный остров — плавучая электростанция

СОЛНЕЧНЫЕ ОСТРОВА — это уже не фантастические, а реальные проекты плавучих электростанций, которые способны генерировать электроэнергию из энергии Солнца.

Один из таких проектов будущего в настоящее время уже проектируется и разрабатывается учеными из центра электроники и микротехники в Швейцарии.

Насколько проект СОЛНЕЧНЫЕ ОСТРОВА важен для мирового сообщества? Какие экологические технологии будут применяться при его создании?

Представьте круглый плоский остров диаметром пять километров, который плавает на поверхности моря.

Он величественно разворачивается вслед за передвижением солнца по небосклону. А между СОЛНЕЧНЫМ ОСТРОВОМ и берегом постоянно снуют танкеры, перевозящие на материк даровое (условно) топливо. Так, возможно, будет выглядеть новая энергетическая плавучая электростанция, проектируемая швейцарским центром CSEM (Centre Suisse d’Electronique et de Microtechnique).

Швейцарский научный центр CSEM предложил идею создания «солнечных островов», поскольку это настоящий прорыв в мировой альтернативной энергетике, к тому же, подобные электростанции являются совершенно неразвитым направлением в солнечной энергетике.

По мнению проектировщиков, уже через каких-то несколько десятков лет, использование подобных плавучих электростанций станет обычным делом. Мало того, большая доля всей возобновляемой энергии в мире будет поставляться именно такими электрическими станциями-островами, что является очень выгодным для мирового сообщества.

Швейцарцы отмечают, что хотя то в одной, то в другой стране регулярно появляются проекты по альтернативной энергетике, крупномасштабные электростанции такого типа всё ещё редки. Их высокая цена — один из главных сдерживающих факторов. Именно невысокой стоимости возведения системы стремились достичь инженеры CSEM, когда придумывали проект гигантских плавучих электростанций «солнечные острова» (Solar Islands).

Особенности СОЛНЕЧНЫХ ОСТРОВОВ

Плавучие электростанции представляют собой плоские искусственные платформы, которые могут достигать в диаметре от 1 до 5 км. Размещаться плавучие СОЛНЕЧНЫЕ ОСТРОВА будут в море или океане, генерируя, таким образом, солнечную энергию.

Система была бы не оригинальной, если бы не базировалась на огромном плавучем острове. Возникает вопрос, зачем устанавливать подобную систему на искусственном острове в океане, а не на суше?

Как ни странно, по версии создателей Solar Islands, перед нами не усложнение, а упрощение солнечной электростанции. Наличие плавающей платформы упрощает строительство: под тяжёлые зеркала не нужно возводить фундамент. Вместо этого швейцарцы предлагают построить огромный пустотелый тор, плавающий на воде, сверху которого будет натянута тонкая мембрана, несущая на себе зеркала. Воздушные насосы будут понемногу подкачивать под мембрану воздух. При избыточном давлении менее чем в 0,1 атмосферу такое огромное поле сможет создать гигантскую подъёмную силу, берущую на себя почти весь вес комплекса.

Со свободной землёй под строительство в случае возведения плавучего СОЛНЕЧНОГО ОСТРОВА также проблемы не будет, что является ещё одним фактором снижения стоимости станции. А когда человечество захочет создать побольше таких систем, можно будет использовать нейтральные воды и возводить международные солнечные электростанции нового типа.

Авторы «солнечных островов» решили отказаться от солнечных батарей. Особенностью таких станций является, прежде всего, то, что в качестве основного элемента здесь будут использованы солнечные концентраторы с системой зеркал параболической формы. Солнечные концентраторы представляют собой систему труб с теплоносителем, турбины и генератор (гелиотермические электростанции). КПД такой схемы около 15% — возможно, не самый впечатляющий, зато зеркала-концентраторы куда дешевле, чем фотоэлектрические преобразователи (солнечные батареи), да и остальная техника также не особенно сложна и дорога.

Согласно разработанному проекту, на плавучей электростанции, солнечные концентраты будут расположены таким образом, чтобы максимально эффективно генерировать электроэнергию. Это будет осуществляться с помощью специальных труб, располагаемых вдоль зеркал, по которым движется теплоноситель, превращаемый в пар. А также за счет системы поворота солнечных концентраторов вслед за солнцем. Для системы поворота на СОЛНЕЧНОМ ОСТРОВЕ предусмотрены электрические винтовые моторы, которые устанавливаются по окружности острова через каждые 10 метров под водой.

Простое решение проблемы «солнечного острова», чтобы зеркала всегда были направлены на солнце, — медленный поворот всего круглого острова. Такая система проще и дешевле поворота тысяч зеркал по отдельности. Кроме того, если вы строите большое полесолнечных концентраторов на суше, вам потребуется куча следящих приводов, множество электроники и километры проводов.

Еще одним не менее важным достоинством СОЛНЕЧНОГО ОСТРОВА и особенностью конструкции плавучей электростанции будет являться то, что под сбор солнечных лучей здесь отведено свыше 95% общей площади острова, а это значит, что около 95% солнечных лучей будут преобразованы в электричество, в то время как в наземных электростанциях подобные показатели намного ниже. По расчетам 1 квадратный метр поверхности СОЛНЕЧНОГО ОСТРОВА способен генерировать около 6 кВт-час электричества в день.

СОЛНЕЧНЫЙ ОСТРОВ. Плавучая электростанция. Солнечные электростанции. СОЛНЕЧНЫЙ ОСТРОВ как безопасная альтернативная энергетикаТакже, чтобы не уменьшать эффективность работы такой плавучей солнечной электростанции, будет предусмотрено использование тепловых накопителей для генерации энергии в ночное время. А это значит, что накопленная за день солнечная энергия будет аккумулироваться в накопителях и преобразовываться с помощью паровых турбин ночью в электричество.

Как же будет решена проблема передачи электричества с острова на сушу? Чтобы исключить необходимость в длинных электрических линиях, идущих с острова на берег, создатели комплекса предусмотрели необходимый вариант: вырабатываемаяСОЛНЕЧНЫМ ОСТРОВОМ энергия будет использоваться на нём же — для выработки водорода из морской воды. Получается, чтосолнечный остров с помощью зеркал превращает солнечную энергию в электричество, а затем использует электричество для выработки водорода из воды. Это топливо можно будет складировать на солнечном острове, затем постепенно транспортировать на берег с помощью танкеров и далее использовать, к примеру, как топливо для авто. Заодно этот жесолнечный остров может заняться и опреснением воды для питьевых нужд.

Первые успехи строительства СОЛНЕЧНЫХ ОСТРОВОВ

Для более эффективной работы подобной плавучей электростанции, она должна быть размещена на территории с постоянным солнцестоянием, в экваториальной зоне, в месте, где 350 дней в году светит солнце. И ещё хорошо бы, чтобы местные власти были заинтересованы в развитии альтернативной энергетики и согласились финансировать развитие такой системы в рамках инвестиционного проекта.

Наиболее привлекательной зоной для размещения подобных солнечных островов являются Объединенные Арабские Эмираты. Кроме того, здесь уже давно существует подразделение центра — CSEM-UAE. И здесь уже три года швейцарцы работают над разными проектами необычных электростанций.

Теперь остается открытым вопрос, захочет ли правительство ОАЭ финансировать данный проект, и насколько оно заинтересовано в развитии альтернативной энергетики в целом? Ответом на этот вопрос является подписанный контракт между правительством ОАЭ и швейцарским центром на выделение значительного бюджета для реализации проекта. В настоящее время, на осуществление идеи плавучей электростанции уже выделено около 5 миллионов долларов.

Уже построен и заработал прототип солнечной электростанции относительно скромных размеров – диаметром 100 метров. Правда плавает он не в море, а в пустыне — на воде в специальном канале. Здесь прошли и испытания системы. Этот экспериментальный прототип способен генерировать по 2,2 ГВт-часа электрической энергии в год.

Таким образом, учитывая уже выполненные работы и имеющуюся поддержку правительства ОАЭ, уже к концу 2011 года в водах Персидского залива, должен будет возведен первый плавучий СОЛНЕЧНЫЙ ОСТРОВ, который будет составлять в диаметре 0,5 км. А уже с начала 2012 года планируется ввести остров в эксплуатацию с целью коммерческого производства и поставки электроэнергии.

Разработчиками планируется создать несколько моделей плавучих электростанций, отличающихся размерами — от самых маленьких до гигантских, именно поэтому в планах на следующие несколько лет создание более крупных СОЛНЕЧНЫХ ОСТРОВОВ диаметром от 1 до 5 км.

Насколько адаптированы к погодным условиям будут подобные энергетические острова, предстоит выяснить в ходе эксплуатации, поскольку неизвестно, каким образом станция будет реагировать на влияние ветра и волн, на сейсмическую активность и прочее. Швейцарцы не сомневаются в нормальной работе системы солнечных концентраторов и паровых турбин, не раз отработанных в разных странах на суше. «Больше всего вопросов вызывает сам плавучий остров, — утверждает Томас Хиндерлинг (Thomas Hinderling), директор CSEM. Точно неизвестно, как он будет сопротивляться ветру и волнам, хотя компьютерные модели говорят, что никаких проблем с этим не будет. Но столь масштабную постройку всё же надо испытать в реальных условиях».

Для обеспечения плавучих электростанций элементами солнечной системы: солнечными концентратами, турбинами, генераторами и прочими элементами, была создана компания, на которую возложена эта миссия. В августе прошлого года CSEM создал дочернюю компанию Nolaris, которая займётся изготовлением зеркал-концентраторов и других элементов системы.

Что касается стоимости плавучих электростанций, то по предварительным расчетам разработчиков, стоимость станции будет составлять от 10 до 150 долларов за 1 квадратный метр рабочей площади. Окупиться такая плавучая солнечная электростанция при правильно подходе способна через 8-10 лет, при условии, что часть выручки от продажи полученной электроэнергии будет использоваться на обслуживание и амортизацию станции. По меркам проектов из сферы альтернативной энергетики – это очень неплохой период окупаемости.

В ближайшие 20-30 лет солнечные электростанции различных типов станут одним из основных источников электрической энергии для нашей планеты, предсказывает Хиндерлинг. Доля электричества от «солнечных островов» в этом альтернативном потоке может оказаться немалой. По мнению ученых, уже через каких-то несколько десятков лет, строительство и использование подобных плавучих электростанций станет обычным делом, мало того, удельная доля всей возобновляемой энергии в мире будет поставляться именно такими электрическими станциями-островами, что является очень выгодным для мирового сообщества.

Если в настоящее время, плавучие СОЛНЕЧНЫЕ ОСТРОВА существуют только в стадии новаторских разработок, то в недалеком будущем этим уже ни кого нельзя будет удивить. Это еще раз подтверждает мнение о том, что будущее за альтернативными источниками возобновляемой энергии.

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